Patrick Macrory


Practice Experience and Education


Patrick Macrory has practiced and taught trade law in Washington, D.C. for fifty years. Mr. Macrory is a former English barrister who was at the firm of Arnold & Porter for 22 years, latterly as a senior partner. From 1990 to 1997 he was a senior partner at the law firm of Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, and in 1997 he became a senior consultant (part-time) to that firm. His practice was focused on the field of trade remedies and customs law. He received his B.A. in 1962 and his M.A. in 1968 from Oxford University. He practiced as a barrister in London on commercial matters before moving to the United States in 1968. He received his LL.M from George Washington University in 1971. He is Director of the International Trade Law Center at the International Law Institute, Washington, DC (ILI), and a partner in the law firm of Appleton Luff, with offices in Geneva, Brussels, Seattle. Washington, D.C., Kampala Singapore, and Warsaw.


Mr. Macrory has written and spoken extensively on international trade law subjects. He was Co-Chairman of the International Trade Committee of the American Bar Association. He was Visiting Associate Professor of Political Science at the International Christian University in Tokyo, Japan, where he taught courses on various aspects of international law, including the GATT and trade law. Mr. Macrory has taught trade law courses at the Washington College of Law at American University, including a course on regional trade agreements. He has also taught courses on the subject at the International Law Institute’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., and at its affiliates in Uganda, Egypt, Turkey, and Nigeria, as well as in Tokyo and Beijing. Mr. Macrory was a visiting lecturer at Queen Mary and Westfield College at London University covering WTO law. He has lectured on trade law in many parts of the world, including Japan, Korea, China, Canada, Saudi Arabia, India, Nepal, Switzerland, Kyrgyzstan, the Bahamas, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, Barbados, and the Dominican Republic. He has designed and run seven one-month courses for groups of Chinese lawyers on WTO law, focusing on trade remedies, and a similar course for a group of Vietnamese government officials. He recently designed and ran a course on dispute settlement in the WTO and under regional trade agreements.


In 2001 Mr. Macrory designed a course for the Foreign Service Institute to instruct foreign service officers and other US government officials on the WTO and other trade agreements. Since then Mr. Macrory has presented this course three to five times a year at the FSI’s headquarters in Arlington, Virginia, as well as at US embassies in various parts of the world, including Tokyo, Beijing, and Kampala. The course has received extremely favorable reviews; several participants have described it as the best FSI course they had ever taken.


Mr. Macrory has carried out many consulting projects on trade issues. For example, he advised the People’s Bank of China on WTO aspects of banking law reform in a project financed by the Asian Development Bank. He led a team that provided WTO training to 250 senior Chinese judges in another ADB-financed project. He has advised the Government of Armenia on aspects of Armenia’s accession to the WTO, in a project financed by USAID. His work on this project focused on the establishment of an effective means of developing and implementing trade policy, with input from all of the stakeholders, including the private sector. He has worked on two projects with the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, the first in connection with the extension of the Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement to trade in services, and the second in connection with the negotiation of an Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU. He assisted the Government of Botswana in its preparation for the negotiation of a services chapter to the free trade provisions of the Southern African Development Community. He recently presented a paper to the Commonwealth Secretariat on Special and Differential Treatment in RTAs and the WTO for smaller and poorer countries. A few years ago, Mr. Macrory designed and ran a series of workshops for different service sectors in Jordan focusing on how they can use international trade agreements to expand exports. He has also designed and run workshops on negotiation of trade agreements in Botswana, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, Tanzania, and Malawi, and Myanmar and a workshop on import relief (antidumping, countervailing duties and safeguards) in Zambia.


Mr. Macrory was Editor-in-Chief of a major work on the World Trade Organization, published in May 2005 by Springer under the title “The World Trade Organization – Legal, Economic, and Political Analysis” (Arthur Appleton and Michael Plummer were co-editors). The book contains more than eighty chapters, providing comprehensive legal, political, and economic analyses of the WTO, written by many of the leading academics, practitioners, and government officials in the world. Two former Directors-General of the WTO, two members of the WTO Appellate Body, and a number of members of the WTO staff, have contributed chapters to the book, and another former Director-General wrote the foreword. Mr. Macrory himself wrote the chapters on anti-dumping and import licensing. One review of the book described it as “the standard reference tool for trade experts and professionals”, and another as “the Mercedes S-Class” of books on trade. More recently, Mr. Macrory and Mr. Appleton co-edited “A Business Guide to Trade and Investment” (published by the International Chamber of Commerce and the ILI), which is designed to guide business in non-technical terms through the complexity of trade and investment agreements. In 2019 the book was published in Chinese by Nanjing University Press.


Mr. Macrory is a citizen of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland.




B.A. Oxford (1962); M.A. Oxford (1968)


Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple, London (1964)


LL.M. George Washington University (1970)





Professional History and Affiliations

Mr. Macrory has worked on U.S. trade remedy cases for exporters in many countries, including Japan, China, Taiwan, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Finland, Sweden, Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Israel. For example:


  • Macrory represented Komatsu, Toshiba, Nissan, and Mazda and other Japanese interests in trade remedy cases and has also worked for Toyota on trade issues.
  • He worked for Canadian interests in the first four rounds of the massive Softwood Lumber countervailing case. Canada won each round on appeal.
  • He represented the Mexican interests in an antidumping case against winter vegetables. Mexico’s second largest export to the United States. Mexico won the case based on a unprecedented approach based on regression analysis.
  • Macrory represented Codelco, the largest copper producer in the world, in the successful defense of a safeguards case
  • He represented the Chinese headwear industry in one of the few antidumping cases against China to be won by Chinese interests.


  • The World Trade Organization – Legal, Economic and Political Analysis (editor-in-chief) (Springer 2005)
  • “Chapters 19 and 20 of NAFTA: An Overview and Analysis of NAFTA Dispute Settlement”, in Kennedy (ed.), The First Decade of NAFTA: The Future of Free Trade in North America(Transnational Publishers 2004)
  • “NAFTA Chapter Nineteen – A Successful Experiment in International Dispute Resolution” (C.D. Howe Inst., 2002)
  • “WTO Dispute Resolution and LDCs”, in WTO Globalization and Nepal (Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies, 2001)
  • “Department of Commerce Investigations Under the Antidumping Statute,” (with Claire Reade and Spencer Griffith) in Ince and Glick (eds.), Manual for The Practice of United States International Trade Law (Kluwer Law International 2001))
  • “Developing Countries and the WTO” (paper delivered at WTO Conference sponsored by Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies, November 2000)
  • “U.S. Restrictions on Imports of Winter Vegetables from Mexico”, Fla. J. Int. Law (1997)
  • “The Judicialization of Dispute Resolution in International Trade Law – A Practitioner’s View.,”Proceeding of the 1996 Conference of the Canadian Council on International Law.
  • “Administration of the U.S. Antidumping Law by the U.S. Department of Commerce,” The GATT, The WTO and the Uruguay Round Amendments Act (P.L.I. 1995)
  • “United States and European Community Antidumping Law: Similarities and Differences,”University of Miami Year Book of International Law, with Edwin Vermulst and Paul Waer (1991)
  • Boltack and Litan (eds.), Down in the Dumps: Administration of the Unfair Trade Laws,contributor (1991)
  • Jackson and Vermulst, Antidumping Law and Practice, contributor (1989)
  • “The Prospects for U.S. Trade Legislation in 1987,” The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (1987)
  • “Recent Developments in Department of Commerce Administration of the U.S. Antidumping Law”, The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (1986)
  • “Section 103 of the Revenue Act of 1971 and the Houdaille Case: A New Trade Remedy,”North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation (1984)
  • “The Houdaille Case: An Attack on Japanese Industrial Policy,” The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law, with Robert E. Herzstein (1982)
  • Current Aspects of International Trade Law (American Bar Association), co-editor (1982)
  • “Some Recent Developments in U.S. Trade Law and Administration,” The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (1980)
  • “The 1916 Antidumping Act: Recent Court Decisions and Proposed Legislative Amendments,”The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (1980)
  • “United States Trade Law: An Overview and Some Topical Issues,” The Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law (1978)
  • “The Pre-Colombian Art Caper: Are Museums Collecting or Stealing Art?” District Lawyer(1977)
  • “The United States-Canadian Automotive Products Agreement: The First Five Years,” Law and Policy in International Business (1970)